Tips for Raising Teens on the Autism Spectrum (2022)

The teen years can be challenging for everyone; they can be far more challenging, however, for young people with autism—and their parents or guardians. As with most aspects of autism, the level of difficulty will vary radically depending on the individual on the spectrum, their family situation, their support system, and their school.

Fortunately, there are many ways parents and guardians can prepare for and ease the transition to teenagerhood. The teen years are also a great time to start preparing for adulthood.

Tips for Raising Teens on the Autism Spectrum (1)

Autism Challenges for Teens

Children with autism may be nonverbal or chatty. They may do well in school or find it challenging. They may have extreme behaviors or none at all. But all children with autism have these challenges in common:

(Video) Helping Parents and Therapists Cope with Autism Spectrum Disorder | Susan Sherkow | TEDxYouth@LFNY

  • Difficulty understanding and expressing themselves with spoken and body language
  • Challenges with executive functioning (the ability to plan and organize their time)
  • Difficulty with "reading" and responding appropriately to social situations
  • Lack of flexibility and preference for routine

Most children with autism also struggle with:

  • Sensory challenges (over- or under-responsiveness to light, sound, smells, and physical sensations)
  • Delays in physical coordination and low muscle tone
  • Learning disabilities
  • Difficulty with grasping abstract concepts
  • Emotional dysregulation
  • Anxiety
  • Continued fascination with childish interests (they are "young for their age")

Add to all of these issues the onset of puberty and physical changes, new academic and social challenges, and higher intellectual and social expectations, and it's not surprising that the teenage years can be especially tough for kids on the autism spectrum.

How Autism May Reduce Teen Stress

Yes, the teen years can be particularly rough for autistic youngsters. But for some on the autism spectrum, puberty can actually be less painful than it is for neurotypical teens. That's because many people with autism:

  • Don't judge themselves based on what the media presents or what others think of them
  • Are not stressed by the need to prove themselves academically or physically
  • Have more personal interests and hobbies that they can pursue with or without same-age peers
  • Are able to quickly learn new routines (shaving, for example)

Of course, not every person with autism fits the same mold, but for some teens, the lack of self-judgment or hyper-awareness of others' opinions can be a great plus.

Physical Changes

Even very high functioning autistic children may be unprepared for puberty without clear, consistent, direct education. Neither hints nor wordy lectures will be as effective as they might be with neurotypical children.

(Video) Preparing for adulthood: teenagers with autism spectrum disorder

This means you must be graphic, specific, and hands-on in ways that are most comfortable for your autistic loved one. It is important to be this way because no one else may take on that role for a child with autism. Some options for preparing a child with autism for the onset of physical changes include:

  • Helping the child to choose a deodorant with a smell they prefer, and overseeing its use on a daily basis—even before it's needed
  • Getting the child into a routine of daily baths and showers, and ensuring that they are washing thoroughly
  • Teaching the child to use electric razors (which are safer than other razors) for appropriate shaving
  • Using simple books, videos, social stories, and other teaching tools to supplement sex education programs offered in schools
  • Using simple books, videos, social stories, and other teaching tools to help the child anticipate and manage erections, wet dreams, or the onset of menstruation
  • If you have a child who could get periods, physically teach them to use period hygiene products (tampons and pads) and check to be sure they change them regularly

While some younger children may masturbate in inappropriate places, the likelihood of this happening may increase as a child enters puberty. While there is nothing intrinsically wrong with masturbation in private, it can become a serious issue in public. This is particularly true for teenagers, who may be perceived as potential sexual predators.

It is therefore very important to teach a child where and when they can masturbate privately. If public masturbation is an issue with a child, a parent or guardian may decide to work with a behavioral therapist to help manage the problem.

Intellectual Expectations

Many people with autism are unusually intelligent; others are of average intelligence. Over 30%, however, have intellectual disabilities and about half have learning disabilities. Many have attentional issues such as ADHD, and many have difficulty grasping and discussing abstract concepts.

Skills such as memorization, repetition, and basic math are highly prized in the early years—skills that are often areas of strength among autistic children. But reading comprehension, verbal discussion, writing, and analytical thinking are expected as children get older, and these may be very challenging for teens on the spectrum.

(Video) Tips for Neurodiverse Parents of Children and Teens on the Autism Spectrum

Fortunately, parents, guardians, teachers, and therapists know ahead of time that these challenges are coming up, so they can plan to support autistic teens as needed. Supports, special settings, and unique services become part of a child's individualized educational plan (IEP).

There are a range of options available; the choice will depend on the teen's level of academic ability. For example, some autistic teens:

  • Participate in general education with 1-to-1 or tutoring support
  • Participate in the typical curriculum in classes that move at a slower rate
  • Are not able to participate in the typical curriculum but can follow a modified curriculum in a special education classroom
  • Are enrolled in behavioral and/or pre-employment programs, either at their local schools or at schools centering education for people living with disabilities

One particularly tricky aspect of American high school education is the requirement that all high school students pass standardized tests. While some autistic students have little trouble with standardized tests, others find them extremely stressful and difficult. Autistic teens do qualify for extra time and other supports, but only if they are requested.

Emotional Challenges and Differences

The teenage years can be an emotional rollercoaster. Some teens with autism are overwhelmed with emotions during this period, but others slide through with less angst than their neurotypical peers.

It is often the bubbliest and most capable autistic teens who are most impacted by the emotional challenges of puberty; that's because they are most likely to actively want social acceptance and to be keenly aware of rejection.

(Video) How To Parent A Child With High-Functioning Autism

In addition to the usual teenage ups and downs, teens with autism may experience some of these additional challenges:

  • Emotional immaturity that manifests itself in childish interests or emotional responses that would be expected in a much younger child
  • High levels of anxiety, especially when faced with unexpected demands or changes in routine
  • Difficulty reading social signals which can result in accusations of inappropriate blurting, interrupting, touching, or stalking
  • Bullying, teasing, and/or social exclusion based on "weird" behavior, speech patterns, and/or interests
  • Extreme emotional responses to stress that can manifest in aggression, tantrums (meltdowns), and/or "bolting" (running away)
  • Depression (especially among higher functioning teens) which can lead to suicidal intentions or actions

Many of these issues can be mitigated or even resolved if they are addressed early and creatively. Some options include:

  • Social skills groups and training to improve teens' ability to recognize and respond appropriately to verbal and non-verbal social cues
  • Direct instruction on topics such as "what to discuss at the lunch table," or "topics to keep to yourself;
  • Appropriate medication and therapy for anxiety and depression
  • Participation in social groups that support students with disabilities ("Lunch Bunch," Best Buddies, Challenger Club, etc.)
  • Development of interests and skills that can be shared in typical peer groups (musical skills, theatrical skills, video gaming, arts clubs, sports, etc.)
  • Behavioral intervention and therapy

If a teen is not thriving in a public school setting, try exploring other options. For example, some autistic teens do better in technical high schools; others flourish in high schools tailored to people living with disabilities, and yet others are successful as homeschoolers.

Planning for Adulthood

One can begin planning for an autistic child's adulthood while they are still a young teen. In fact, the earlier one begins planning, the better the chances are of maximizing an autistic child's opportunities. Now is the time to start:

  • Asking the local school district to begin transition planning, which should include ongoing assessments of a child's particular needs and interests
  • Learning about adult service options in the state, and finding out what is available for adults with autism—with and without intellectual disabilities
  • Exploring options for post-secondary education including possibilities for district-funded programs between grade 12 and age 22 (when an autistic child will no longer qualify for IDEA funding)
  • Discussing college if it's appropriate, and beginning to look into autism-friendly college programs if that's of interest to a family
  • Discussing living options that can range from institutional settings to group homes to semi-independent living to independent supported living
  • Deciding whether to continue to be a child's guardian when they turn 18, or if one wants to consider other options such as health proxy and power of attorney
  • Considering long-term financing of an autistic child's needs through a special needs trust, insurance policy, or other means

A Word From Verywell

In addition to the topics discussed in this article, it's important to note that young adults with autism are at higher risk than their neurotypical peers for several chronic issues. These include epilepsy, schizophrenia, and skin disorders, as well as ongoing risk of gastrointestinal problems.

(Video) Autism Spectrum Disorder: 10 things you should know

It's important to keep a close eye on a teenage child's psychological and physical wellness as they grow toward adulthood.

FAQs

How do you discipline a teenager on the spectrum? ›

Discipline Strategies for Children With Autism
  1. Understand Their Behavior.
  2. Use Positive Reinforcement.
  3. Teach Self-Calming Techniques.
  4. Control Their Environment.
  5. Stick to Routines.
  6. Communicate Clearly.
  7. Ignore Harmless Behaviors.
  8. Put Safety First.
23 Jun 2021

What are 5 strategies that can be used to help support children with autism spectrum disorders? ›

Our 5 Best Autism Teaching Strategies
  • Support Routines and Transitions. Most children with autism are sensitive to abrupt changes in routine and will learn best in routine situations. ...
  • Use Visual Cues. ...
  • Use Special Interests as a Gateway to Teaching Skills. ...
  • Incorporate Sensory Tools. ...
  • Support social skills practice.
5 Nov 2019

Does autism get worse during puberty? ›

Research is limited on children with autism who are going through puberty. But some experts suggest that while children's behavior may improve during elementary-school years, it can deteriorate with the physical and hormonal changes that come with adolescence.

How do you calm down an autistic teenager? ›

Autistic children and teenagers need support to recognise overwhelmed feelings and know what to do. Help autistic children and teenagers avoid meltdowns by stepping in when they start to get agitated. During a meltdown, stay calm, give children space, avoid saying too much, and wait.

How Do You talk to an autistic teenager? ›

Communication and interaction tips for ASD
  1. Be patient. ...
  2. Teach the child how to express anger without being too aggressive. ...
  3. Be persistent but resilient. ...
  4. Always stay positive. ...
  5. Ignore irritating attention-getting behavior. ...
  6. Interact through physical activity. ...
  7. Be affectionate and respectful. ...
  8. Show your love and interest.

What do autistic teenagers struggle with? ›

Teens with ASD tend to show resistance or an inability to following directions and have difficulties transitioning from one activity to another in school. Challenges that teens with autism face are related to differences in communication and social behaviors, cognitive rigidity, executive function, and self-care.

What is an autistic teenager like? ›

Older autistic children and teenagers might: have trouble taking turns in conversations – for example, they might like to do all the talking or find it hard to answer questions about themselves. talk a lot about favourite topics, but find it difficult to talk about a range of topics.

How do you raise a high functioning autistic child? ›

Kids with High-Functioning Autism tend to do best when they have a highly-structured schedule or routine. This goes back to the consistency they both need and crave. Set up a schedule for your youngster, with regular times for meals, therapy, school, and bedtime. Try to keep disruptions to this routine to a minimum.

What is the most effective intervention for autism? ›

Developmental Approaches

The most common developmental therapy for people with ASD is Speech and Language Therapy. Speech and Language Therapy helps to improve the person's understanding and use of speech and language.

What are calming strategies for autism? ›

We have some great tips that are specifically implemented in ESDM ABA therapy.
  • Don't reinforce the challenging behaviors. ...
  • Use precise simple language. ...
  • Help to verbally express their emotions. ...
  • Sing preferred songs. ...
  • Create a calm corner (bean bags, dim lighting, sensory toys) ...
  • Take deep breathes. ...
  • Count to 10.

What are good activities for autism? ›

Hobbies such as collecting stamps, playing cards or board games, drawing and photography can also provide opportunities for enjoyment, as well as increased self-confidence and motivation individuals on the spectrum.

Is autism inherited from the mother? ›

Due to its lower prevalence in females, autism was always thought to have a maternal inheritance component. However, research also suggests that the rarer variants associated with autism are mostly inherited from the father. Ultimately, autism is a complex condition with 100s of genes involved.

What does high functioning autism look like in a teenager? ›

Teens diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, also known as high functioning autism, typically don't have the delays in speech, motor, and physical skills. The delay is on social and communication skills which are made more obvious once the child has been exposed to social situations.

What causes autism in teenagers? ›

No one knows exactly what causes ASD. It probably has something to do with DNA — the genes passed down from your parents — and other things, like infections or toxins that change the way the brain develops. Problems during pregnancy and around the time of birth raise the chance of getting autism.

What triggers autism meltdowns? ›

What triggers autistic meltdowns?
  • Sensory overload or understimulation. This is when a child is sensitive to sound, touch, taste, smell, visuals or movements.
  • Changes in routine or dealing with an unexpected change. ...
  • Anxiety or anxious feelings.
  • Being unable to describe what they need or want.

What is the best mood stabilizer for autism? ›

Risperidone (Risperdal®)

Risperidone is an antipsychotic and mood stabilizer medication and is also used for treatment of irritability of autism and tic disorders.

How do you calm an overstimulated autistic child? ›

Autism: Managing Over-stimulation and Stress
  1. Remember the rule of one. Use the rule of one when a child is deeply stressed, anxious or in the middle of a meltdown. ...
  2. Deep Breathing. ...
  3. Isometric Exercise. ...
  4. Deep Pressure. ...
  5. Massage. ...
  6. Provide a Box of Tactile Items. ...
  7. Create a Calming Area. ...
  8. Communication.
8 Apr 2020

What should you not say to a child with autism? ›

5 things to NEVER say to someone with Autism:
  • “Don't worry, everyone's a little Autistic.” No. ...
  • “You must be like Rainman or something.” Here we go again… not everyone on the spectrum is a genius. ...
  • “Do you take medication for that?” This breaks my heart every time I hear it. ...
  • “I have social issues too. ...
  • “You seem so normal!
13 Dec 2017

What kids should not do with autism? ›

The Dos & Don'ts When Interacting With Autistic Children
  • Don't Approach Parents With Pity.
  • Don't Bark Instructions.
  • Don't Take Things Personally.
  • Don't Assume Nonverbal Children Can't Communicate.
  • Don't Insist on Eye Contact.
  • Don't Use Creative Language.
  • Don't Assume the Child Can't Hear.
  • Don't Stare.
14 Dec 2021

What do students with autism struggle with in school? ›

School activities that may be particularly challenging for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), previously referred to as Asperger's Disorder, include social interactions, noisy or disordered environments, intense sensory stimulation, and changes in expected routines.

What is the most common problem with autism? ›

Social anxiety – or extreme fear of new people, crowds and social situations – is especially common among people with autism. In addition, many people with autism have difficulty controlling anxiety once something triggers it.

What are the three main challenges for someone with autism? ›

Common Challenges
  • Anxiety. Anxiety is a normal part of development, but research confirms that people with autism experience elevated levels of anxiety in comparison to their typically developing peers. ...
  • Dealing with change. People on the autism spectrum can find change very stressful. ...
  • Transition planning.

How do you calm down an autistic meltdown? ›

Strategies to consider include distraction, diversion, helping the person use calming strategies such as fiddle toys or listening to music, removing any potential triggers, and staying calm yourself.

What does Stimming mean? ›

About stimming and autism

Stimming – or self-stimulatory behaviour – is repetitive or unusual body movement or noises. Stimming might include: hand and finger mannerisms – for example, finger-flicking and hand-flapping. unusual body movements – for example, rocking back and forth while sitting or standing.

How do you motivate a teenager with Aspergers? ›

Employ an activity-based reward system. Teens with Asperger's and HFA often derive intense pleasure from their favourite activities, so these can be used to motivate them to engage in less-preferred activities (e.g., homework, chores). This avoids nagging, frustration, and other negative social stimuli.

How do you make an autistic child happy? ›

Helping your child with autism thrive tip 1: Provide structure and safety
  1. Be consistent. ...
  2. Stick to a schedule. ...
  3. Reward good behavior. ...
  4. Create a home safety zone. ...
  5. Look for nonverbal cues. ...
  6. Figure out the motivation behind the tantrum. ...
  7. Make time for fun. ...
  8. Pay attention to your child's sensory sensitivities.

What is the life expectancy of someone with autism? ›

One of the most important investigations of recent years revealed that average life expectancy of a person with severe autism is 39.5 years, rising to only 58 years for those with high-functioning autism, or Asperger syndrome.

What is new in autism treatment? ›

PaxMedica Inc., has announced that PAX-101 (IV suramin), an investigational drug being developed as a potential treatment for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), achieved marked and sustained improvement in several efficacy assessment measures in its Phase II trial.

What resources can help autism? ›

The Asperger/Autism Network (AANE) provides individuals, families, and professionals with information, education, community, support, and advocacy.
  • Autism Highway. ...
  • Autism Navigator. ...
  • Autism Research Institute. ...
  • Autism Society. ...
  • Autism Speaks. ...
  • MyAutismTeam. ...
  • Organization for Autism Research.

What color is calming for autism? ›

Greens, blues, pinks, soft oranges and neutrals can be very comforting. Keeping the colors muted, these tones can quiet the mind and create calm.

What are some Stimming behaviors? ›

In an autistic person, stimming might involve: rocking. flapping hands or flicking or snapping fingers.
...
Common stimming behaviors include:
  • biting your fingernails.
  • twirling your hair around your fingers.
  • cracking your knuckles or other joints.
  • drumming your fingers.
  • tapping your pencil.
  • jiggling your foot.
  • whistling.

What hobbies do autistic children have? ›

These interests are extremely common among people with autism: 75 to 95 percent have them. An interest may involve collecting items such as postcards or dolls, listening to or playing music in a repetitive way, or focusing intensely on a narrow topic, such as insects fighting.

What games are good for autistic kids? ›

Ten Toys and Games for Autistic Toddlers and Children
  • Sign up for AmazonSmile and designate Autism Speaks as your charity of choice.
  • Simple First Words: Let's Talk. ...
  • 2-in-1 Snug 'n Secure Swing. ...
  • Smart Tablet. ...
  • Sound Puzzles. ...
  • Jumpsmart Electronic Trampoline. ...
  • Calico Critters Family Camper and Cherry Cruiser. ...
  • Hungry Hungry Hippos.
6 Sept 2018

What do autistic children enjoy doing? ›

Puzzles are a favorite toy of children with autism, according to their parents. Connecting pieces provides a satisfying tactile sensation, and children enjoy the bright colors that come into picture as the puzzle progresses.

Who carries the autism gene? ›

The team found that mothers passed only half of their structural variants on to their autistic children—a frequency that would be expected by chance alone—suggesting that variants inherited from mothers were not associated with autism. But surprisingly, fathers did pass on substantially more than 50% of their variants.

What can mimic high functioning autism? ›

Examples include:
  • Avoidant personality disorder.
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Reactive attachment disorder.
  • Social (pragmatic) communication disorder.
  • Schizophrenia, which rarely happens in children.
18 Jan 2022

Does autism count as a disability? ›

Conditions like autism are recognized by the Social Security Administration (SSA) as potentially disabling and may be able to qualify you or your child for Social Security Disability (SSD) benefits through one of both of the SSA's disability programs.

What are the signs of Asperger's in a teenager? ›

What are the Symptoms of Asperger's Syndrome? Children with Asperger's Syndrome exhibit poor social interactions, obsessions, odd speech patterns, limited facial expressions and other peculiar mannerisms. They might engage in obsessive routines and show an unusual sensitivity to sensory stimuli.

When does autism get easier? ›

A new study found that around 30 percent of young children with autism have less severe autism symptoms at age 6 than they did at age 3, with some children losing their autism diagnoses entirely.

What are the signs of autism in a 15 year old? ›

Signs of autism in teenagers
  • Problems forming friendships.
  • Mistaking social cues or body language.
  • Misinterpretation of conversations.
  • Finding it easier to form friendships online.
  • Poor eye contact.
  • Expressing that they 'don't fit in'

How Do You talk to an autistic teenager? ›

Communication and interaction tips for ASD
  1. Be patient. ...
  2. Teach the child how to express anger without being too aggressive. ...
  3. Be persistent but resilient. ...
  4. Always stay positive. ...
  5. Ignore irritating attention-getting behavior. ...
  6. Interact through physical activity. ...
  7. Be affectionate and respectful. ...
  8. Show your love and interest.

How do you calm an autistic teenager? ›

What to do during a very loud, very public meltdown
  1. Be empathetic. Empathy means listening and acknowledging their struggle without judgment. ...
  2. Make them feel safe and loved. ...
  3. Eliminate punishments. ...
  4. Focus on your child, not staring bystanders. ...
  5. Break out your sensory toolkit. ...
  6. Teach them coping strategies once they're calm.
18 Apr 2018

Can autism be triggered by trauma? ›

A recent study by Roberts et al. (2015) found a strong association between trauma, PTSD and autistic traits (which may have been sub-clinical) in adult women. This association was highest amongst those women with the most severe autistic traits.

What does high functioning autism look like in a teenager? ›

Teens diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, also known as high functioning autism, typically don't have the delays in speech, motor, and physical skills. The delay is on social and communication skills which are made more obvious once the child has been exposed to social situations.

How do autistic teenagers behave? ›

Their behavior may seem strange; they may avoid other people; they may pace and move their bodies in unusual ways, like flapping their hands. They may repeat lines from TV shows or movies. People with less severe ASD are able to talk and learn.

Can Aspergers get worse in teenage years? ›

Will my Aspergers child's symptoms get worse over time? It doesn't actually worsen, but when a child with Aspergers (high functioning autism) reaches puberty, he/she can come under tremendous pressure and stress.

How do you get an autistic child to listen? ›

Keep your turns short at first, so your son needs to listen for only a short time before you praise or reward him. As he gets better at listening and waiting his turn, try gradually lengthening your answers (or those of another partner). We like combining this game with the talking stick or listen/talk signs.

What can be mistaken for high functioning autism? ›

Examples include:
  • Avoidant personality disorder.
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Reactive attachment disorder.
  • Social (pragmatic) communication disorder.
  • Schizophrenia, which rarely happens in children.
18 Jan 2022

What is the biggest symptom of autism? ›

People with ASD often have problems with social communication and interaction, and restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. People with ASD may also have different ways of learning, moving, or paying attention.

What are the signs of Asperger's in a teenager? ›

What are the Symptoms of Asperger's Syndrome? Children with Asperger's Syndrome exhibit poor social interactions, obsessions, odd speech patterns, limited facial expressions and other peculiar mannerisms. They might engage in obsessive routines and show an unusual sensitivity to sensory stimuli.

What do autistic teenagers struggle with? ›

Teens with ASD tend to show resistance or an inability to following directions and have difficulties transitioning from one activity to another in school. Challenges that teens with autism face are related to differences in communication and social behaviors, cognitive rigidity, executive function, and self-care.

Do autistic teens have empathy? ›

Yes. Despite the stereotype, people with autism can be empathetic. In fact, some experience a type of empathy known as affective empathy, which is based on instincts and involuntary responses to the emotions of others.

Do autistic teens get angry? ›

Anger and aggression are common across all levels of the autism spectrum. Children who struggle with more substantial social and communication issues, as well as those who engage in more repetitive behaviors, are more likely to have problems with emotional regulation and aggressive actions.

How do you motivate a teenager with Aspergers? ›

Employ an activity-based reward system. Teens with Asperger's and HFA often derive intense pleasure from their favourite activities, so these can be used to motivate them to engage in less-preferred activities (e.g., homework, chores). This avoids nagging, frustration, and other negative social stimuli.

What do students with autism struggle with in school? ›

School activities that may be particularly challenging for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), previously referred to as Asperger's Disorder, include social interactions, noisy or disordered environments, intense sensory stimulation, and changes in expected routines.

How do you motivate someone with Aspergers? ›

The Most Effective Way To Motivate Someone On The Autistic Spectrum - Asperger Experts. Holding them accountable, enforcing your boundaries and staying sane during the process. The roadmap to successfully launching and becoming an independent, thriving adult. What to do about shutdown, overwhelm, anxiety & stagnation.

Which parent carries autism gene? ›

Due to its lower prevalence in females, autism was always thought to have a maternal inheritance component. However, research also suggests that the rarer variants associated with autism are mostly inherited from the father.

How do you get a defiant autistic child to cooperate? ›

You can help autistic children cooperate by setting limits, giving effective instructions and offering choices. Changing the environment might make it easier for autistic children to cooperate. Helping autistic children with social interaction and communications can encourage cooperation.

What are good activities for autism? ›

Hobbies such as collecting stamps, playing cards or board games, drawing and photography can also provide opportunities for enjoyment, as well as increased self-confidence and motivation individuals on the spectrum.

Videos

1. Rogers Behavioral Health therapist provides tips to support children with autism spectrum disorder
(Rogers Behavioral Health)
2. Rewards and Discipline: Tips for Parents of Kids on the Autism Spectrum
(Mark Hutten, M.A.)
3. Autism Tips for Parents
(Parents and Kids of North Queensland)
4. Friends and socialising: teenagers with autism spectrum disorder
(Raising Children Network)
5. How to parent my autistic child
(Coming Home to Autism)
6. Parenting Children & Teens on the Autism Spectrum: Support & Education on Facebook
(Mark Hutten, M.A.)

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