Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (2023)

இறவாத இன்ப அன்பு வேண்டிப்பின் வேண்டு கின்றார்
பிறவாமை வேண்டும், மீண்டும் பிறப்புண்டேல் உன்னை என்றும்
மறவாமை வேண்டும், இன்னும் வேண்டும்நான் மகிழ்ந்து பாடி
அறவாநீ ஆடும் போதுஉன் அடியின்கீழ் இருக்க என்றார்.
“I pray for the infinite happiness of Your love; I do not want to be born again; if I do, I do not want to forget You forever; if I do, I want to be happily singing in Your praise under Your feet as You are dancing”.

http://tamilnation.co/sathyam/east/periyapuranam.htm

This is what Karaikkal Ammaiyar asks Lord Shiva and is represented beautifully in the words of Sekkizhar’s Periya Puranam – the story of 63 Nayanmars

banteay srei temple – adalvallan and karaikkal ammaiyar to his right

Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (1)

As a normal oratorical speech would start, we cannot start by saying ‘Karaikkal Ammaiyar’ needs no introduction. Indeed, Karaikkal Ammaiyar needs introduction in today’s Tamil World. The world knowing her is secondary; the Tamil World of today’s Youngsters and English Educated Middle Aged Parents – most or half of the population not knowing her is certainly a pathetic scenario. But for Indians – Being Well Rooted in one’s own traditions as well as Being a Global Citizen doesn’t seem to materialize. While the choice of being a global citizen has become the PRIDE of present generations, one doesn’t realize the resultant loss of identity due to loss of roots. The primary task of each generation which used to be passing on the roots to the next generation has become secondary. But, making their progeny succeed in any part of the world by having no single identity is a NORM of the millennium. A pity though.

battambang museum – adalvallan andkaraikkal ammaiyar to his left

Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (2)

Nayanmars – Devotion through one’s own mother tongue

To introduce Karaikkal Ammaiyar, introduction of Nayanmars is quintessential. Nayanmars were Ardent Devotees who sang in praise of Lord Shiva in humble Tamil and connected with the masses. In an attempt to cut off the influences of Buddhism and Jainism, these Primary Devotees of Tamil Bhakti Movement took up Shaivism. Their pure love and selfless affection towards Lord Shiva was a powerful tool against other religions. Their priceless possession was not only Devotion and Selfless Love, but incomparable literary skill that made them reach out to the common man in his own language.

There were 63 Nayanmars, who lived and sang from 6th century until 12th century ACE, without doubt creating a wealth of Bhakti Literature that stands even today to hold the importance of worship of God in Tamil.

Beyond being a tool against other religions, their belief in love and devotion alone to reach Shiva is the keypoint in all the songs that the Nayanmars sang. Belief in one’s God and being able to relate and communicate with that One Almighty in one’s own mother tongue and non-dependence of Sanskrit to communicate with that God could be a few fundamentals of the Tamil Bhakti Movement.


Rajaraja Cholan (985-1013)

Great credit goes to the Cholas for bringing to light the compiled version of the songs sung by 63 Nayanmars. King Rajaraja Cholan appointed Nambi Andar Nambi, a priest in Thillai – the original Tamil name of Chidambaram Shiva Temple, to compile the devotional literary works of Nayanmars, sprawling over 5 centuries then.

Nambi compiled the works of the 63 Nayanmars into 11 volumes and added his own work in the 11th volume. The works of Sambanthar, Appar, and Sundarar form(ed) the first seven volumes and they are called Thevaram – or the Garland of the Gods; Manickavasagar’s Thirukkovaiyar and Thiruvasagam form(ed) the 8th volume. These four nayanmars are classified as the Most Reverred Beacons of Tamil Shaivite Bhakti Movement (Samaya Kuravargal), among the 63.


Kulothunga Cholan II (1133-1150)

During the reign of King Kulothuga Cholan II, his chief minister Sekkizhar/Chekkizhar travelled across the places of birth and travel of the 63 nayanmars and compiled their life histories. He named his biography of nayanmars in poetic verses – ‘Thiruthondar Puranam’ – the story of the servants of God, which is popularly called ‘Periya Puranam’ – the Big Puranam. Sekkizhar’s Periya Puranam added as the 12th volume to the previous collection of 11 volumes is called ‘Panniru Thirumurai’ – The Tamil Saiva Literary Canon.

(Video) Karaikkal Ammaiyar | Saluting Women in History | English

Rajarajan, who gave the Nayanmars their deserving Elite Place in Tamil Saiva Literature and Tamil Saiva Movement is hailed as ‘Thirumurai Kanda Cholan’ – that can be broadly described in English as ‘the Protector of Saiva Religion and Literature’.

The sacred collection ‘Panniru Thirumurai’ is a unique Literary Excellence which showcases 600 years of devotional movement of surrendering to the Lord, the extra ordinary emphasis being the worship in one’s own mother tongue.

The devotional movements contained elements of social as well as religious reform, protesting brahmanical orthodoxy along with the heterodox faiths of Buddhism and Jainism. http://www.southwestern.edu/academics/bwp/pdf/2005bwp-craddock.pdf

Thevaram and other hymns still adorn the Temples of Tamilnadu and homes of Tamil Worshippers around the world.

All the saints mentioned in this epic poem are historical persons and not mythical.Therefore, this is a recorded history of the 63 Saiva saints called as Nayanmars (devotees of Lord Siva), who attain salvation by their unflinching devotion to Siva. The Nayanmars that he talks about belonged to different castes, different occupations and lived in different times.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periya_Puranam#cite_note-MedievalIndianLiterature-3


Karaikkal Ammaiyar

phnom penh museum – karaikkal ammaiyar

Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (3)


Her Literary Contribution to the Tamil World –

She is considered the author of 143 poems organized into four works of poetry that are included in the eleventh book of the Tirumuṟai, the Śaiva canon: Aṟputat Tiruvantāti (Sacred Linked Verses of Wonder), with 101 veṇpā verses; Tiruviraṭṭai Maṇimālai (The Sacred Garland of Double Gems), with 20 stanzas alternating in veṇpā and kaṭṭalaik kalittuṟai; and the two patikams called Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Mūtta Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ (First Sacred Verses on Tiruvālaṅkāṭu), which are ten-verse poems with an eleventh “signature” verse each and which are set to music (some texts call the first patikam Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Mūtta Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ and the second patikam simply Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ, or Sacred Verses on Tiruvālaṅkāṭu). http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195399318/obo-9780195399318-0059.xml

Among the 63 Nayanmars, Karaikkal Ammaiyar was a Pioneer Tamil Saint in many ways. She was one and first among the three women Nayanmars.

A few striking features of Ammaiyar include –

  • She was the first Nayanmar among the 63 Nayanmars in the chronological order. She lived in 5th- 6th Century ACE. Hence, she was the first nayanmar to initiate the Tamil Bhakti Movement
  • Her story of devotion epitomises the fact that love of God is beyond gender
  • She had the conviction to forgo her family life, leaving behind her husband to blissfully sing at the feet of Shiva
  • She had the fearless attitude to give away her beautiful looks and to take up ‘Peyuru’ or ‘Demonic Image’, that is why she is portrayed in a skeletal demonic form in all sculptures
  • She was introduced by Shiva to his wife Parvati as ‘Ammai’ or mother – such was the passion of God that made her convert from ‘Punithavathi’ her original name to Karaikkal Ammaiyar or the Mother of Karaikkal, a town in the then Pallava Empire, in today’s Union Territory of Pudhucherry in South India
  • She introduced the pattern of poetry writing called ‘Andhadhi’ –

Andhadhi(Tamil: அந்தாதி) is a unique kind of Tamil poetry constructed such that the last or ending word of each verse became the first word of the next verse. In some instances, the last word of a series of verses becomes the beginning of the very first verse, thus making the poem a true garland of verses. Andha(m means “end” and ‘‘Adhi’’ means “beginning”. In Tamil Andhadhi was first sung by Karaikkal Ammeiyar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhadhi

She is addressed by scholars and researchers in many ways. Apart from Karaikkal Ammaiyar, she is also called ‘Siva’s Demon Devotee’, ‘Karaikkal Pei’ – meaning ‘Ghost of Karaikkal’ in tamil due to her looks and ‘Peyar’ – the revered ghost. Giving least importance to beauty and worldly pleasures, she wished and prayed for the demonic form and her wish was granted by Shiva. She can be recognized as an emaciated/skeletal figure at the feet of Shiva in sculptures.

She composed Thiuvirattai Manimalai, Arputha Thiruvanthathi and Thiruvalankaatu Mootha Thiruppathigangal.

To know more on Ammaiyar, google ‘Karaikkal Ammaiyar’ and the web world welcomes you to introductions and many research papers.

(Video) 63 நாயன்மார்களின் கதை | 24. காரைக்கால் அம்மையார் | Nayanars |


Ammaiyar in Cambodia

name legend recognizing karaikkal ammaiyar in phnom penh museum

Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (4)

When I came across the book in the internet, Karaikkalammaiyar: An iconographical and textual study By Peter J. J. de Bruijn, it threw a new light on Ammaiyar in Cambodia.

The book specifies the places where Ammaiyar was found in demon form sitting below the beautifully carved ‘Adalvallan – Nataraja or the Dancing Shiva’.

Let’s bring back the verses that kick-started this post –

இறவாத இன்ப அன்பு வேண்டிப்பின் வேண்டு கின்றார்
பிறவாமை வேண்டும், மீண்டும் பிறப்புண்டேல் உன்னை என்றும்
மறவாமை வேண்டும், இன்னும் வேண்டும்நான் மகிழ்ந்து பாடி
அறவாநீ ஆடும் போதுஉன் அடியின்கீழ் இருக்க என்றார்.

“I pray for the infinite happiness of Your love; I do not want to be born again; if I do, I do not want to forget You forever; if I do, I want to be happily singing in Your praise under Your feet as You are dancing”.

http://tamilnation.co/sathyam/east/periyapuranam.htm

This is what Ammaiyar sought from Shiva – to sit at his feet while he dances.

This is exactly the form of portrayal in sculptures in Tamilnadu and other South East Asian countries.

The book specifies the places in Tamilnadu and places in other countries where Ammaiyar can be seen.

Three temples in Tamilnadu –

  1. Sembiyan Mahadevi Village – Kailasanathasvamin Temple
  2. Thanjavur – Rajarajeswara Temple
  3. Gangai Konda Chozhapuram – Brihadeeswara Temple

Three bronze sculptures in Srilanka –

  1. Polannaruva – Siva Devele
  2. Colombo Museum
  3. Polannaruva – Siva Devele

Three places in Thailand –

  1. Kamphaeng Yai
  2. Narai Yaeng Waeng
  3. Phimai

and Six places in Cambodia –

  1. Isvarapura Temple – Banteay Srei
  2. Vat Ek
  3. Vat Baset
  4. Phnom Chisor
  5. Angkor Wat and
  6. Sculpture at Phnom Penh Museum

This seemed very interesting. While Ammaiyar sculptures in Banteay Srei and Phnom Penh Museum had already been seen, Vat Ek and Vat Baset became the next search spots.

(Video) How 60 Nayanmars became 63 Nayanmars | Saint Karaikal Ammaiyar Storie | Tamil | #63நாயன்மார்கள்...

Vat Ek and Vat Baset are located in Battambang Province of Cambodia. Both temples are in natural ruins, added with a new Buddhist Temple in front of Vat Ek. Unfortunately couldn’t find Ammaiyar in Vat Ek.

But surprisingly Battambang Provincial Museum had three sculptures of Ammaiyar. One Lintel and two broken pediments. They have also recognised Karaikkal Ammaiyar and given a description in their museum booklet.

Let us try to bring in more historical facts of the temples where Ammaiyar’s sculptures are available in temples in Cambodia.


Vat Baset

broken lintel of adalvallan/dancing shiva – vat baset

Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (5)closer look shows karaikkal ammaiyar

Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal (6)
In search of details of Vat Baset…

Vat Baset was built during the reign of King, Surya Varman I (1002-1050) and located on a hill at Ba Set village, Ba Set temple adapts the architecture of 11th century and was built between 1036 and 1042. http://www.tourismindochina.com/battambang-attractionsite1.htm

The book – ‘The Indianized States of South-East Asia’ by George Coedesprovides a clearer picture about the King who built Vat Baset and his relations with the Chola Empire of Tamilagam.

The accession of throne by Surya Varman seems to have been a complicated affair. Two inscriptions mention of one Udayadityavarman, cousin of Jayavarman V who comes to throne in 1001. In 1001 and 1002, there are four inscriptions referring to Suryavarman, who belongs to royal ancestry in the female line. From 1003 to 1006, King Jayaviravarman is mentioned in inscriptions and according to his inscriptions he establishes the throne of Angkor from 1011.

In the following pages of the book, the author also gives more details on the capturing of throne by Suriyavarman after nine years of war, approximately in 1010. Later in his inscriptions, he dates his accession as year 1002, the year of death or disappearance of King Udayadityavarman I.

There is another thought provoking fact that the author mentions –

In 1012, Suryavarman feeling threatened by the Srivijaya King Maravijayottungavarman, seeks aid of Rajendracholan I by presenting him a chariot. Later, Rajendra Cholan I launches a war against the same Srivijaya King.

The first half of the eleventh century, during the long reign of Suryavarman I, saw indeed the empire become more vast, populous and prosperous.

The king established four lingas to delimit his empire:

The first Linga was consecrated at Vat Baset, 70 km to the south-west of Angkor.

The three other Lingas were established during 1018 CE at:

(Video) Kaaraikkal Ammaiyar Varalaru | காரைக்கால் அம்மையார் வரலாறு |

Preah Vihear, on a promontory of the Dangrek Range, 140 km to the north-east of Angkor

Phnom Chissor, a sacred hill located 270 km to the south-east.

– Isanatirthi, somewhere in the east.

http://ancientcartography.net/hinterlandsaturn15.html


Among the five temples where Karaikkal Ammaiyar is sculpted in Cambodia, Phnom Chissor, Vat Ek and Vat Baset are all built by King Suryavarman I. The same Rajendra Cholan – I, with whom Suryavarman sought friendly relations, built Adalvallan – Nataraja or the Dancing Shiva with Karaikkal Ammaiyar in his Gangai Konda Cholapuram Kovil (temple). Before Rajendra Cholan, his father Rajaraja Cholan immortalized Ammaiyar in sculpture in his Thanjavur Brihadeswara Kovil.

Could this throw any light on the historic tamil connection of Karaikkal Ammaiyar in Cambodia? But, Vat Baset is certainly not the earliest temple with Ammaiyar sculpture. Banteay Srei temple in 10th century is earlier. This would be discussed in forthcoming posts.

Adalvallan/Nataraja or Dancing Shiva and Karaikkal Ammaiyar – the duo sculpted in South-East Asian temples, kindles more interest in the Yesteryear relations among these Kingdoms and Tamil Kings. Let’s try to explore further to decipher more…..

Books, Research Papers and Links on Karaikkal Ammaiyar

1. Interpreting Devotion: The Poetry and Legacy of a Female Bhakti Saint of India by Karen Pechilis- link – https://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/4275

2. http://www.southwestern.edu/academics/bwp/pdf/2005bwp-craddock.pdf

3. Medieval Indian Literature – by K. Ayyappa Panicker

4. http://www.academia.edu/310962/

5.Siva’s Demon Devotee, Karaikkal Ammaiyar by Elaine Craddock

6.Karaikkalammaiyar: An iconographical and textual study by Peter J. J. de Bruijn

7.Classical Civilizations of South-East Asia edited by Vladimir Braginsky

link – https://books.google.com.kh/books

8.The Indianized States of South-East Asia by George Cœdès

9. http://www.shaivam.org/nakaarai.html

(Video) Kaaraikkal Ammaiyar Varalaru Shorts | காரைக்கால் அம்மையார் வரலாறு Shorts |

FAQs

What does Ammaiyar mean? ›

She gave him a mango that she got by prayer; the fruit disappeared when he touched it. He realised that his wife was no ordinary woman, but a divine person and began to call her 'Ammaiyar' (mother).

Who were Andal and Karaikkal Ammaiyar What were their contributions? ›

Andal is remembered for her unwavering devotion to Lord Vishnu. Her compositions had been sung and sung even today. Karaikkal Ammaiyar is one of the best figures of early Tamil literature, a Bhakti poet and saint who possibly lived in the sixth century AD. She followed the course of intense asceticism to gain her goal.

Which Hindu God took away the beauty of Ammaiyar? ›

Ammaiyār then asks Shiva to take away her earthly beauty and give her a demon form in which she can properly worship him.

What is the original name of Karaikal Ammaiyar? ›

Karaikal was a maritime trading city in Chola Nadu. Ammaiyar, whose original name was Punitavati, was born to Dhanadattan in a merchant community known as Nattukottai Nagarathar (also known as Nattukottai Chettiar). She was married to Paramadattan, a wealthy merchant from Nagapattinam.

What is a freeborn woman? ›

Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office. Because of their limited public role, women are named less frequently than men by Roman historians.

In which tradition of Bhakti did Karaikkal Ammaiyar belong? ›

Karaikkal Ammaiyar is one of the greatest figures of early Tamil literature, a Bhakti poet and saint who probably lived during the 6th century AD. She was one of the three women amongst the 63 Nayanmars, a group of saints devoted to the Hindu god Shiva. “Ammaiyae” literally means mother.

Which of the statement is incorrect regarding Karaikkal Ammaiyar? ›

Karaikkal Ammaiyar, a devotee of Shiva, adopted the path of extreme asceticism in order to attain her goal. Hence, the statement I is incorrect. ​Her compositions were preserved within the Nayanar tradition. Hence, statement II is incorrect.

Who was Andals Class 12? ›

Notes: Andal was the daughter of Alvar saint Periyalvar. She was only female Alvar saint among 12 alvar saints of the south. Like other Alvar saints, she was a devotee of Lord Vishnu.

Which among the following is correct regarding the Bhakti movement in South India? ›

Nayanars and Alwaras were two important sects of the Bhakti Movement in South India. Nayanars were devoted to lord shiva and his avatars while Alvaras was devoted to Lord Vishnu and his avatars.

Who is the most beautiful woman in Hinduism? ›

Ahalya is often described to be created by the god Brahma as the most beautiful woman in the entire universe, but also sometimes as an earthy princess of Lunar Dynasty.

Who is the most beautiful female God in Hinduism? ›

Indrani (Sanskrit: इन्द्राणी, IAST: Indrāṇī, lit. Indra's queen), also known as Shachi (Sanskrit: शची, IAST: Śacī), is the queen of the devas in Hinduism. Described as tantalisingly beautiful, proud, and kind, she is also the ruler of the planet Venus.

Who is the female God of beauty in Hindu? ›

Parvati is the Hindu goddess of love, beauty, purity, fertility and devotion. She is the mother goddess in Hinduism and has many attributes and aspects.

What is the oldest name of Puducherry? ›

The original name of the territory, Putucceri, is derived from the Tamil words putu (“new”) and ceri (“village”). The French corrupted this to Pondichéry (English: Pondicherry), by which it was called until its name was officially changed to Puducherry in 2006.

Why is Karaikal famous? ›

Karaikal is a major port city of East Coast of India. This is the birthplace of KaraikalAmmaiyar. Karaikal is famous for its temples. The major attraction in the area is Saneeswara Temple, Sri Kailasanathar Temple, Navagraha Temples and Ammaiyar Temple.

Who ruled Pondicherry first? ›

On 4th February 1673 a French Company Official by name Bellanger, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondicherry. In 1674, the French Company placed François Martin as the first Governor and who initiated the ambitious project to transform Pondicherry from a small fishing village into a flourishing port-town.

What do you call a free woman? ›

Definitions of freewoman. a person who is not a serf or a slave. synonyms: freeman. types: freedman, freedwoman.

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The stola (Classical Latin: [ˈst̪ɔ. ɫ̪a]) (pl. stolae) was the traditional garment of Roman women, corresponding to the toga that was worn by men.

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For most of ancient Roman history, respectable Roman women wore the stola — a long dress that reached down to the feet that was worn over a tunic. The stola was usually sleeveless and could be made out of a range of materials, though it had traditionally been made out of wool, like the toga.

Who is Nirguna bhakti saints? ›

Saint Kabir Das was a Nirguna saint and reformer. He was one of the main leaders of the Bhakti movement. Nirguna means formless. The Bhakti movement influenced a large number of people in India.

Who was the first preceptor of Bhakti? ›

Complete answer: The Bhakti Movement was first organized by Ramanuja. From the 7th century, the Bhakti Movement was started in South India as the revival of religion.

Who were Nayanars devoted? ›

The Nayanars were a group of 63 saints devoted to Lord Shiva who lived during the 6th to 8th centuries CE.

Which of the following statement is correct about alvars and Nayanars? ›

The correct answer is B and C only. The Nayanars and Alvars were the Tamil poet-saints. The Nayanars were devotees of Shiva while the Alvars were the devotees of Vishnu. Nayanars and Alvars played a crucial role in propagating the Bhakti Movement in Southern India.

What is Andal mother name? ›

Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagar Dynasty composed the epic poem Amuktamalyada in Telugu, which is considered as a masterpiece. Amuktamalyada translates to one who wears and gives away garlands, and describes the story of Andal or Goda Devi, the daughter of Periyalvar.

What is King of Andals? ›

Robert Baratheon
GenderMale
TitleKing of the Andals and the First Men Lord of the Seven Kingdoms Protector of the Realm Lord of Storm's End Lord Paramount of the Stormlands
OccupationKing War general and revolutionary figure
FamilyHouse Baratheon
12 more rows

Who is the original name of Andal? ›

Andal was born as Godadevi and is one of the 12 Alwars of Tamil Nadu. She was the adopted daughter of Vishnuchitha who was also an Alwar.

What are the three types of Bhakti? ›

Atma-Bhakti: devotion to the one's atma (Supreme Self) Ishvara-Bhakti: devotion to a formless being (God, Cosmic Lord) Ishta Devata-Bhakti: devotion to a personal God or goddess.

What is the name of two famous saints of Bhakti movement? ›

Its great exponents were Ramanuja in the South, Jaidev and Chaitanya in Bengal, Ramanand and Kabir in U.P., Namdev, Ramdas, Tukaram in Maharashtra and Nanak in Punjab.

Who was the most popular reformer of Bhakti movement? ›

Meerabai is considered one of the most significant sants in the Vaishnava bhakti movement. She was from a 16th-century aristocratic family in Rajasthan.

Who is the female god of beauty? ›

Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty, identified with Venus by the Romans. She was known primarily as a goddess of love and fertility and occasionally presided over marriage.

Which god is beautiful? ›

A beauty deity is a god or (usually) goddess associated with the concept of beauty. Classic examples in the Western culture are the Greek goddess Aphrodite and her Roman counterpart, Venus.

Who is the most powerful Hindu? ›

Supreme God
  • Vishnu is the supreme God of Hinduism. ...
  • Regional and family traditions can play a large part in influencing this choice. ...
  • For Vaishnavites, Lord Maha Vishnu is God Of Supreme, For Shaktas, Goddess Shakti is supreme, For Shaivites, God Shiva is Supreme.

Who is first god in the world? ›

Who is Brahma? Brahma is the first god in the Hindu triumvirate, or trimurti. The triumvirate consists of three gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world. The other two gods are Vishnu and Shiva.

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Iconography. Kāmadeva is represented as a young, handsome man who wields a bow and arrows. His bow is made of sugarcane, and his arrows are decorated with five kinds of fragrant flowers.

Who was the first woman in Hinduism? ›

Shatarupa (Sanskrit: शतरूपा, romanized: Śatarūpā, lit. 'she of a hundred forms') is the daughter of the creator deity, Brahma. According to Brahma Purana, Shatarupa is regarded as the first woman to be created by Brahma, marrying Manu, the first man. Their descendants are called manushya, the Sanskrit term for mankind.

Who is the god of male beauty? ›

In modern times, the term “Adonis” can be used to refer to a man who is desirable and attractive. The word has deep roots in ancient Greek mythology because Adonis is the god of beauty and attraction – a male counterpart for Aphrodite.

Who killed Rahu? ›

Surya (the sun-god) and Chandra (the moon-god) quickly inform Vishnu, and he uses the Sudarshana Chakra (the divine discus) to decapitate Rahu, leaving the head immortal. The other major Hindu epic, Ramayana (4th century BCE), narrates the Mohini story briefly in the Bala Kanda chapter.

Is Shiva male or female? ›

Shiva and Vishnu

In Vaishnavism and Shaivism, God, Vishnu or Shiva respectively, is personified as male.

What is the nickname of Pondicherry? ›

Puducherry, formerly known as Pondicherry, gained its significance as “The French Riviera of the East” after the advent of the French colonialization in India.

Why is Pondicherry famous? ›

Pondicherry is synonymous with the Aurobindo Ashram. Founded by Sri Aurobindo and Mirra Alfassa (The Mother) in 1926, it is one of the major highlights of Pondicherry and is visited by thousands of people from all over the world. The ashram is also the place of Samadhi of Sri Aurobindo ...

Why is Pondicherry unique? ›

Often referred to as the 'French Capital of India', Pondicherry is a vibrant city located on the south-eastern coast of India. Brimming with unspoiled beaches, heritage buildings, French and Tamil quarters, ancient temples and churches and a colonial ambience, this French Colony has a plethora of things to do and see.

Why is Pondicherry called white town? ›

The French quarter, also known as White Town, ostensibly due to its predominant occupation by French communities before Independence, is characterised by bright yellow and white buildings.

Why Pondicherry is called Little France? ›

Pondicherry is a residue of colonial past that France left in India. This place has an aesthetic advantage of coromandal coast of Bay of Bengal. The beaches, colonial buildings, resorts, monuments and others make this place a good getaway spot.

What is special in Thirunallar? ›

Thirunallar contains the shrine of Lord Sani (Saturn), Tirunallar Saniswaran Temple within the temple dedicated to Lord Darbharanyeswaran, a form of Lord Shiva.

Which city is called France of India? ›

Bounded by the state of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, commonly called 'Pondy' sits along the South Eastern coast of India.

Which country ruled India first? ›

British India

Who is the king of Pondicherry? ›

Pondicherry came under the influence of the Cholas in the tenth century after they defeated the Pallavas. Their rule began from the city of Nellore till Pudukottai along the Coromandel Coast in the eastern part of India. King Aditya I was the ruler under whom the Cholas rose to power.

Whats the meaning of Contem? ›

despise, contemn, scorn, disdain mean to regard as unworthy of one's notice or consideration. despise may suggest an emotional response ranging from strong dislike to loathing. despises cowards. contemn implies a vehement condemnation of a person or thing as low, vile, feeble, or ignominious.

What is the meaning Bonaventure? ›

First recorded in 1490–1500, bonaventure is from the Italian word buonaventura literally, good luck. See bonus, venture.

What is the Bessy? ›

ˈbe-sē plural -es. : a stock character in English folk dances and plays played by a man dressed as a woman.

Who is a Negar? ›

Negar, Negâr is a feminine given name of Persian origin meaning "sweetheart, soulmate , idol or beloved .", it also means "pattern and painting". Words from the same family: Negarandeh: Painter, sculptor.

What is the meaning of Aquated? ›

to know or be familiar with something, because you have studied it or have experienced it before: Police said the thieves were obviously well acquainted with the alarm system at the department store.

What is the meaning of deviously? ›

/ˈdiː.vi.əs.li/ in a way that is dishonest or tricks people, but is often also clever and successful: He smiled deviously at Rob. The plot of the play is deviously clever. See.

What means disputable? ›

adjective. capable of being disputed; debatable; questionable.

How did Bonaventure understand the concept of God? ›

His theology was marked by an attempt completely to integrate faith and reason. He thought of Christ as the “one true master” who offers humans knowledge that begins in faith, is developed through rational understanding, and is perfected by mystical union with God.

Is Bonaventure an English name? ›

The name Bonaventure is primarily a male name of English origin that means Good Luck.

Where does the name Bonaventure come from? ›

Italian: from the personal name Bonaventura meaning 'good fortune' bestowed as an omen or well-wishing name or in honor of a 13th-century Italian bishop and theologian St. Bonaventure (San Bonaventura in Italian) who was given the nickname Bonaventura by St. Francis of Assisi when he cured him miraculously as a child.

Is Nigar a girl name? ›

Niger - Girl's name meaning, origin, and popularity | BabyCenter.

Is Nigar a real name? ›

The Nigar family name was found in the USA, the UK, and Canada between 1880 and 1920. The most Nigar families were found in USA in 1880. In 1880 there were 4 Nigar families living in Ohio. This was about 57% of all the recorded Nigar's in USA.

Who is called Ravi? ›

Ravi is a male name. It means "sun" in Sanskrit.

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