Hurricane FAQ - NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (2022)

Hurricanes: Their Nature and Impacts on Society
An excellent introductory text into hurricanes (and tropical cyclones in general), this book by R.A. Pielke, Jr. and R.A. Pielke, Sr. provides the basics on the physical mechanisms of hurricanes without getting into any mathematical rigor. The book also discusses hurricane policy, vulnerability and societal responses and ends with an in-depth look at Hurricane Andrew’s forecast, impact and response. Roger A. Pielke, Jr. is a Sociologist at the Environmental and Societal Impacts Group at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Roger A. Pielke, Sr. is a Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University (USA).
John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1997, 279 pp.

Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers
This paperback book is designed to accompany C. Donald Ahrens’ introductory book “Meteorology Today.” For a concise mathematical description of hurricanes that has NO calculus and NO differential equations, then I would suggest obtaining a copy of this book by Rolland B. Stull
West Publ. Co., Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, 2000, 385 pp.
Chapter 16 Hurricanes p.289-304.

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Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones: From Science to Mitigation
edited by Johnny C. L. Chan and Jeffrey D. Kepert
This book is a completely rewritten, updated and expanded new edition of the original Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones published in 1995. It presents a comprehensive review of the state of science and forecasting of tropical cyclones together with the application of this science to disaster mitigation, hence the tag: From Science to Mitigation.Since the previous volume, enormous progress in understanding tropical cyclones has been achieved. These advances range from the theoretical through to ever more sophisticated computer modeling, all underpinned by a vast and growing range of observations from airborne, space and ocean observation platforms. The growth in observational capability is reflected by the inclusion of three new chapters on this topic. The chapter on the effects of climate change on tropical cyclone activity is also new, and appropriate given the recent intense debate on this issue. The advances in the understanding of tropical cyclones which have led to significant improvements in forecasting track, intensity, rainfall and storm surge, are reviewed in detail over three chapters. For the first time, a chapter on seasonal prediction is included. The book concludes with an important chapter on disaster mitigation, which is timely given the enormous loss of life in recent tropical cyclone disasters.
World Scientific, 2010, 448 pp.ISBN: 978-981-4293-47-1 or 978-981-4293-48-8 (ebook).

Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting
For the tropical cyclone forecaster and also of general interest for anyone in the field and those with a non-technical interest in the field, the loose-leaf book Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting(1993) by G.J. Holland (ed.), World Meteorological Organization,WMO/TD-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31 is a must get.

North Carolina’s Hurricane History, Florida’s Hurricane History
These two books are an amazing documentaries of the hurricanes which have struck the states of North Carolina and Florida from 1526 until 1996 and 1546-1995, respectively. The author Jay Barnes – Director of the North Carolina Aquarium – tells the stories of the hurricanes and their effects upon the people of the state in an easily readable style with numerous photographs.
University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 1998, 330pp.

Atlantic Hurricanes
A classic book describing tropical cyclones primarily of the Atlantic basin, but also covering the physical understanding of tropical cyclone genesis, motion, and intensity change at the time. Written in 1960, by Gordon E. Dunn and Banner I. Miller, this book provides insight into the knowledge of tropical cyclones as of the late 1950s. It is interesting to observe that much of what we know was well understood at this pre-satellite era. Gordon E. Dunn was the Director of the National Hurricane Center and Banner I. Miller was a research meteorologist with the National Hurricane Research Project.
Louisiana State Press, 1960, 326pp (revision 1964)

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Hurricanes, Their Nature and History
Before Dunn and Miller’s book, Ivan Ray Tannehill came out with an authoritative reference on the history, structure, climatology, historical tracks, and forecasting techniques of Atlantic hurricanes as was known by the mid-1930s. This is one of the first compilations of yearly tracks of Atlantic storms – he provides tracks of memorable tropical cyclones all the way back to the 1700s and shows all the storm tracks yearly from 1901 onward. The first edition came out in 1938 and the book went through at least nine editions (my book was published in 1956). Mr. Tannehill was engaged in hurricane forecasting for over 20 years and also lead the Division of Synoptic Reports and Forecasts of the U.S. Weather Bureau.
Princeton University Press, 1956, 308 pp.

Into the Hurricane
(Published in Britain as “The Devil’s Music”)
Author Pete Davies spent the summer of 1999 looking at Atlantic hurricanes, traveling to Honduras to see the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, and flying on research missions with NOAA’s Hurricane Research Division. He explores the science of why the storms occur and how to predict them, and recounts the impacts of Hurricane Floyd.
Henry Holt and Company. 2000, 264 pp., ISBN: 0-8050-6574-1.

The Divine Wind
(translated into Chinese) Hurricanes are presented in verse, art, history, and science in this all-encompassing book of the science and culture of hurricanes. Author Kerry Emanuel discusses hurricane forecasting, historical events and human impacts. The book includes many artworks, figures, and photographs, plus a description of flying into hurricanes.
Oxford University Press, 2005, 296 pp.,ISBN-10: 0195149416.

A Global View of Tropical Cyclones
(A revised version of this book isGlobal Perspectives on Tropical Cycloneslisted above.)
A very thorough book dealing with the technical issues of tropical cyclones for the state of the science in the mid-1980s by Elsberry, Holland, Frank, Jarrell, and Southern.
University of Chicago Press, 1987,195 pp.

(Video) Seminar: Advancing the Understanding and Prediction of Tropical Cyclones Using NOAA Aircraft ....

The Hurricane
(1997 revision titled “Hurricanes: Their Nature and Impacts on Society” by Pielke and Pielke is listed above.)
A very good introductory text into hurricanes (and tropical cyclones in general), this book by R.A. Pielke provides the basics on the physical mechanisms of hurricanes without getting into any mathematical rigor. This first version is just 100 pages of text with another 120 pages devoted toward all of the tracks of Atlantic hurricanes from 1871-1989. Roger A. Pielke is a professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University.
Routledge Publishing, New York, 1990, 279 pp. (revision 1997)

Hurricanes
An introductory text book for young readers on hurricanes by Sally Lee.
Franklin Watts Publishing, New York, 1993, 63 pp.

Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the Pieces
Twenty years after Cyclone Tracy, this book recreates, by interviews with survivors, the events during and after the cyclone that nearly destroyed Darwin, Australia by B. Bunbury
Fremantle Arts Centre Press, South Fremantle, Australia, 1994, 148 pp.

Beware the Hurricane!
This book tells “the story of the cyclonic tropical storms that have struck Bermuda and the Islanders’ folk-lore regarding them” by Terry Tucker.
The Island Press Limited, Bermuda, 1995, 180 pp.

(Video) NOAA Live! 101- Hurricane Observations: On the ground, In the eye

Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, Revised Edition
This recent book provides a historical perspective of Florida Hurricanes extending from 1871 to 1996 by J.M. Williams and I. W. Duedall
Florida Sea Grant College Program, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL, 1997, 146 pp.

Hurricanes of the North Atlantic
This book by J. B. Elsner and A. B. Kara focuses on the statistics and variability of Atlantic hurricanes as well as detailed discussions on how hurricanes impact the insurance industry and how integrated assessments can be made regarding these storms. The book provides very valuable information on hurricane frequencies, intensities and return periods that are not easily available elsewhere. Also sections are devoted on the development of seasonal (and longer) hurricane forecast models and their performance.
Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1999, 488 pp.

Natural Disasters – Hurricanes
This reference book by P. J. Fitzpatrick provides a very useful compilation of a wide range of topics on Atlantic hurricanes. Of particular interest is the chronology of advances in the science and forecasting of hurricanes along with biographical sketches of researchers and forecasters prominent in the field. This book is an excellent resource in answering questions on many issues in the field.
ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA, 1999, 286 pp.

Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1851-2006
Researchers and those who follow Atlantic hurricanes should all have a copy of the atlas. Previous versions:
Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1998
Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992
Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1986
Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1980
Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1977
Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1963
North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1886-1958
National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, in cooperation with the Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center, Miami, FL, 2006, 238 pp.

(Video) Hurricanes: Evolution, Risk Reduction, Tracking and Simulation

Hurricanes and Florida Agriculture
Dr. John A. Attaway, former Scientific Research Director of the Florida Department of Citrus, wrote this well-researched history and litany of the impacts that hurricanes have had upon agriculture in Florida.
Florida Science Source, Inc., Lake Alfred, FL, 1999, 444 pp.

FAQs

What is a hurricane short answer? ›

A hurricane is a tropical storm with winds that have reached a constant speed of 74 miles per hour or more. The eye of a storm is usually 20-30 miles wide and may extend over 400 miles. The dangers of a storm include torrential rains, high winds and storm surges.

What is a hurricane facts for kids? ›

Hurricanes are giant tropical storms that produce heavy rainfall and super-strong winds. 2. Hurricanes form over warm ocean waters near the equator. The warm, moist air above the ocean surface rises, causing air from surrounding areas to be “sucked” in.

What is the best way to collect data from hurricane? ›

Satellites, reconnaissance aircraft, Ships, buoys, radar, and other land-based platforms are important tools used in hurricane tracking and prediction. While a tropical cyclone is over the open ocean, remote measurements of the storm's intensity and track are made primarily via satellites.

What are 5 characteristics of a hurricane? ›

A hurricane consists of five main parts: outflow, feeder bands, eyewall, eye, and the storm surge. Outflow is the high-level clouds moving outward from the hurricane. Feeder bands are the areas of heavy rain and gusty winds fed by the warm ocean. They get more pronounced as the storm intensifies.

What damage hurricanes cause? ›

The destructive power of storm surge and large battering waves can result in loss of life, buildings destroyed, beach and dune erosion and road and bridge damage along the coast. Storm surge can travel several miles inland. In estuaries and bayous, salt water intrusion endangers public health and the environment.

What caused hurricane? ›

Hurricanes form when humid air over warm ocean waters flows upward, creating clouds from the water the air releases, according to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The air rotates as it rises, and it grows as warm ocean water and warm, moist air feeds it.

How hurricane are named? ›

The Atlantic Ocean hurricane-naming system has been around since 1953. The names proceed in alphabetical order, omitting the “difficult” letters “Q,” “U,” “X,” “Y,” and “Z.” For the first twenty-five or so years, hurricanes and tropical storms were exclusively given female names.

What was the first hurricane name? ›

They gave each storm a name in order to distinguish the cyclones from each other more quickly than referring to each storm by its position. The first US named hurricane (unofficially named) was George, which hit in 1947.

How fast do hurricanes move? ›

Typically, a hurricane's forward speed averages around 15-20 mph. However, some hurricanes stall, often causing devastatingly heavy rain. Others can accelerate to more than 60 mph.

What instrument is used to detect hurricanes? ›

Land-based radar is used during storms to provide detailed information on hurricane wind fields, rain intensity, and storm position and movement.

What instrument is used to measure hurricanes? ›

The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based only on a hurricane's maximum sustained wind speed. This scale does not take into account other potentially deadly hazards such as storm surge, rainfall flooding, and tornadoes. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale estimates potential property damage.

Which is the best way to limit the damage caused by a hurricane? ›

Installing storm shutters on windows, sliding glass doors, skylights, and French doors is one of the best ways to protect your home. You can buy manufactured shutters made of wood, steel, or aluminum. You can also make storm shutters with 5/8-inch thick exterior-grade plywood.

What are two other names for a hurricane? ›

When they form in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans, tropical cyclones are called hurricanes. In the western North Pacific, the same type of storms are called typhoons. And in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, they are called cyclones.

What are 3 facts about hurricanes? ›

A typical hurricane can dump 6 inches to a foot of rain across a region. The most violent winds and heaviest rains take place in the eye wall, the ring of clouds and thunderstorms closely surrounding the eye. Every second, a large hurricane releases the energy of 10 atomic bombs. Hurricanes can also produce tornadoes.

How long do hurricanes last? ›

These life cycles may run their course in as little as a day or last as long as a month. The longest-lasting tropical cyclone ever observed was Hurricane/Typhoon John, which existed for 31 days as it traveled a 13,000 km (8,100 mi) path from the eastern Pacific to the western Pacific and back to the central Pacific.

How do you stay safe during a hurricane? ›

What to do during a Hurricane
  1. Stay indoors and away from windows.
  2. Listen to local television or radio for updates.
  3. Conditions may change quickly; be prepared to evacuate to a shelter or neighbor's home if necessary.

What causes the most deaths during a hurricane? ›

Storm surge is the abnormal rise of water generated by a storm's winds. This hazard is historically the leading cause of hurricane related deaths in the United States. Storm surge and large battering waves can result in large loss of life and cause massive destruction along the coast.

Why do you fill your bathtub with water during a hurricane? ›

Fill your bathtub full with water: This is an old tip that many people stand by: Fill up your bathtub with water in case of an emergency. This way, you'll have extra water in case you need it to flush toilets, clean dishes, use to wash yourself off or more.

What type of natural disaster is a hurricane? ›

A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone or severe tropical storm. A typical cyclone is accompanied by thunderstorms, and a counterclockwise circulation of winds near the earth's surface.

How is climate change affecting hurricanes? ›

As hurricanes pass over, they absorb more moisture, leading to heavier rainfall. Warmer waters linked to climate change also increase the storms' wind speed, and can cause hurricanes to undergo so-called “rapid intensification” more often.

Why hurricane names are female? ›

In 1953, the United States began using female names for storms and, by 1978, both male and female names were used to identify Northern Pacific storms. This was then adopted in 1979 for storms in the Atlantic basin. NOAA's National Hurricane Center does not control the naming of tropical storms.

What's the next hurricane name 2022? ›

Atlantic Names
20222023
Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Ian Julia Karl Lisa Martin Nicole Owen Paula Richard Shary Tobias Virginie WalterArlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harold Idalia Jose Katia Lee Margot Nigel Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney

What is the eye of the hurricane? ›

The eye of a storm is a circular area where there are winds of up to 15 miles per hour, relatively weak compared with the stronger winds of the rest of the storm. It is completely or partially surrounded by the eyewall, which is a ring of cumulonimbus clouds, the National Hurricane Center said.

What hurricane names will not be used again? ›

Frances, Otto, Gustav and Charley each share a common trait: they are among 82 deadly and destructive Atlantic hurricanes whose names will never be re-used.

Are hurricanes named after females? ›

That year, the United States began using female names for storms. The practice of naming hurricanes solely after women came to an end in 1978 when men's and women's names were included in the Eastern North Pacific storm lists. In 1979, male and female names were included in lists for the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.

What year had the most retired hurricane names? ›

Another 26 seasons, through 2021, have had multiple names removed from future use, led by the record-smashing 2005 hurricane season's five retirees.

Can hurricanes have two eyes? ›

Merging Hurricanes

Another way a hurricane can have “two eyes” is if two separate storms merge into one, known as the Fujiwara Effect - when two nearby tropical cyclones rotate around each other and become one.

Can a hurricane pick you up? ›

The vacuum of space doesn't make your skin explode. But high wind can definitely pick up a person. In fact, if you were standing in the parking lot, the wind wouldn't just pick you up—it would also peel the pavement from the ground! It wouldn't be strong enough to peel your skin off.

What is the longest time a hurricane has lasted? ›

31 days

What are the 7 categories of hurricanes? ›

Types Of Hurricanes
  • Tropical Storm. Winds 39-73 mph.
  • Category 1 Hurricane. winds 74-95 mph (64-82 kt) ...
  • Category 2 Hurricane. winds 96-110 mph (83-95 kt) ...
  • Category 3 Hurricane. winds 111-130 mph (96-113 kt) ...
  • Category 4 Hurricane. winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kt) ...
  • Category 5 Hurricane. winds 156 mph and up (135+ kt)

How fast is the wind in a hurricane? ›

This scale – officially known as the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale – is a rating based on maximum sustained wind speed, which ranges from 74 to 157 mph, or higher.

How do they measure hurricane wind speed? ›

The Saffir-Simpson Scale, ranging from 1 to 5, measures the speed of sustained winds of a hurricane. It was developed in the 1970s to calculate how much wind can impact property. A storm becomes a Category 1 hurricane when winds reach 74 mph.

What is the scale for hurricanes called? ›

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) classifies hurricanes—which in the Western Hemisphere are tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms—into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

What is the center of a hurricane called? ›

Eye: The roughly circular area of comparatively light winds that encompasses the center of a severe tropical cyclone. The eye is either completely or partially surrounded by the eyewall cloud.

How is a hurricane named or classified? ›

Hurricanes are classified using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale — a 1 to 5 rating that's based on maximum sustained wind speed, according to the National Hurricane Center.

What should you do before during and after a storm? ›

The best way to protect yourself and your family in case of a thunderstorm is to follow these steps: Move to a safe place, away from windows and doors. Turn around, don't drown – avoid flood waters.
...
During
  1. When thunder roars, go indoors! ...
  2. Postpone outdoor activities if thunderstorms are likely to occur.

What do you need to prepare for a hurricane? ›

Hurricane Kits
  1. Non-perishable food (enough to last at least 3 days)
  2. Water (enough to last at least 3 days)
  3. First-aid kit (include any prescription medication you may need)
  4. Personal hygiene items and sanitation items.
  5. Flashlights (have extra batteries on hand)
  6. Battery operated radio (again, have extra batteries)

What should you do before during and after a storm surge? ›

If a storm surge is forecast
  • Check supplies including medications, radio, flashlight and batteries.
  • You may have to evacuate. Keep your emergency kit close at hand.
  • Make sure the basement windows are closed.
  • Fuel your car. If evacuation becomes necessary, it will be hard to stop for gas.

What are hurricanes called? ›

If it's above the North Atlantic, central North Pacific or eastern North Pacific oceans (Florida, Caribbean Islands, Texas, Hawaii, etc.), we call it a hurricane. If it hovers over the Northwest Pacific Ocean (usually East Asia), we call it a typhoon.

What is a hurricane disaster? ›

Cyclones, Hurricanes and Typhoons are powerful storms that have winds in excess of 119 kilometres per hour (74 MPH). These wind storms can develop either as a result of a confluence of warm and cold winds over the ocean following a thunderstorm or when differing areas of wind pressure conflict.

What is hurricane science definition? ›

Tropical cyclones with maximum sustained surface winds of less than 39 miles per hour (mph) are called tropical depressions. Those with maximum sustained winds of 39 mph or higher are called tropical storms. When a storm's maximum sustained winds reach 74 mph, it is called a hurricane.

What is the sentence of hurricane? ›

1. The hurricane caused widespread devastation. 2. A hurricane hit the city yesterday at 5 p.m.

How long do hurricanes last? ›

These life cycles may run their course in as little as a day or last as long as a month. The longest-lasting tropical cyclone ever observed was Hurricane/Typhoon John, which existed for 31 days as it traveled a 13,000 km (8,100 mi) path from the eastern Pacific to the western Pacific and back to the central Pacific.

What was the first hurricane name? ›

They gave each storm a name in order to distinguish the cyclones from each other more quickly than referring to each storm by its position. The first US named hurricane (unofficially named) was George, which hit in 1947.

What are 2 other names for hurricanes? ›

When they form in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans, tropical cyclones are called hurricanes. In the western North Pacific, the same type of storms are called typhoons. And in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, they are called cyclones.

How does hurricane affect human life? ›

When a hurricane strikes a community, it leaves an obvious path of destruction. As a result of high winds and water from a storm surge, homes, businesses, and crops may be destroyed or damaged, public infrastructure may also be compromised, and people may suffer injuries or loss of life.

How do hurricanes affect health? ›

Hurricanes are shown to cause and exacerbate multiple diseases, and most adverse health impacts peak within six months following hurricanes. However, chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and mental disorders, continue to occur for years following the hurricane impact.

How can we stay safe during a hurricane? ›

What to do during a Hurricane
  1. Stay indoors and away from windows.
  2. Listen to local television or radio for updates.
  3. Conditions may change quickly; be prepared to evacuate to a shelter or neighbor's home if necessary.

What are 3 parts of a hurricane? ›

Hurricanes have three main parts, the calm eye in the center, the eyewall where the winds and rains are the strongest, and the rain bands which spin out from the center and give the storm its size. Meteorologists use the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale to classify hurricanes into categories one to five.

What are the 5 types of hurricanes? ›

Saffir-Simpson Winds Scale Ratings:
  • Category 1 hurricane = sustained winds of 74-95 mph.
  • Category 2 hurricane = sustained winds of 96-110 mph.
  • Category 3 hurricane = sustained winds of 111-129 mph.
  • Category 4 hurricane = sustained winds of 130-156 mph.
  • Category 5 hurricane = sustained winds of 157+ mph.
22 Mar 2021

Where do most hurricanes start? ›

Hurricanes begin to form near the tropics, in the Caribbean or in the waters around the Cape Verdean islands of West Africa. Relatively warm surface water evaporates rapidly and then condenses in the atmosphere to form clouds. Moist air rises to saturation and a weather system known as a tropical depression forms.

How do British say hurricane? ›

Look up tutorials on Youtube on how to pronounce 'hurricane'.
...
Below is the UK transcription for 'hurricane':
  1. Modern IPA: hə́rɪkən.
  2. Traditional IPA: ˈhʌrɪkən.
  3. 3 syllables: "HURR" + "i" + "kuhn"

What is a good sentence for Voyage? ›

Examples of voyage in a Sentence

Noun The Titanic sank on her maiden voyage. He wrote about his many voyages into the South Seas. a manned voyage to Mars Verb They voyaged to distant lands. He spent his youth voyaging around the globe.

What is the sentence of resolved? ›

Verb The brothers finally resolved their conflict. The issue of the book's authorship was never resolved.

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4. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory | Wikipedia audio article
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